For example, assume you’ve developed a way to make awesome gluten free cupcakes. That recipe is your core technology, but you still need to productize it into a form that will satisfy your customers. To do this, you need to determine what flavors you will make, how large or small you will make each cupcake, if you will accommodate other food allergies with your recipes, and how you will package them: as singles or in multi-packs. These characteristics have little to do with the core technology, but they can have a significant effect on the marketability of the final product.
Without proper productization, you may be able to sell to enthusiasts and early adapters, but crossing the chasm into the main stream will require that you satisfy the needs of the majority. How do you know which of these characteristics are most important to them? As always, ask your customers.